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  1. Due to the fact that pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a highly infectious respiratory disease characterized by high herd susceptibility and hard to be treated, this study aimed to search novel effective biomark...

    Authors: Yahong Sun, Gang Chen, Zhihao Liu, Lina Yu and Yan Shang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:279

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in the onset and development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with unclear mechanisms. Our previous studies found that bleomycin and tunicamycin c...

    Authors: Ling Gong, Gang Liu, Honglan Zhu, Caihong Li, Pengmei Li, Changlu Liu, Hongbo Tang, Kaifeng Wu, Jie Wu, Daishun Liu and Xiaoping Tang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:278

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by deteriorated exocrine gland function with associated lymphocytic infiltration. However, there are few pathological studies on bronchial...

    Authors: Hiroko Okabayashi, Tomohisa Baba, Ryota Ootoshi, Ryota Shintani, Erina Tabata, Satoshi Ikeda, Takashi Niwa, Tsuneyuki Oda, Ryo Okuda, Akimasa Sekine, Hideya Kitamura, Shigeru Komatsu, Eri Hagiwara, Tamiko Takemura, Takuro Sakagami and Takashi Ogura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:277

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by the airway and lung inflammation, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among smokers over 40 years of age and indivi...

    Authors: Haifeng Zhou, Lei Zhang, Yang Li, Guorao Wu, He Zhu, Huilan Zhang, Jia-Kun Su, Lei Guo, Qing Zhou, Fei Xiong, Qilin Yu, Ping Yang, Shu Zhang, Jibao Cai and Cong-Yi Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:276

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing pandemic that profoundly challenges healthcare systems all over the world. Fever, ...

    Authors: Elise Peys, Dieter Stevens, Yannick Vande Weygaerde, Thomas Malfait, Laurens Hermie, Philippe Rogiers, Pieter Depuydt and Eva Van Braeckel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:275

    Content type: Case report

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  6. The early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer is of great significance to the prognosis of patients. However, traditional histopathology and imaging screening have certain limitations. Therefore, new diagn...

    Authors: Jingyao Li, Yi Liao, Yaling Ran, Guiyu Wang, Wei Wu, Yang Qiu, Jie Liu, Ningyu Wen, Tao Jing, Haidong Wang and Shixin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:274

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Previous studies have shown that serum uric acid (UA) levels are correlated with the severity of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and are predictors of disease prognosis. Still, few studies ha...

    Authors: Jingya Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Xiaodi Li, Yingheng Huang, Xiaoxuan Sun, Qiang Wang and Miaojia Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:272

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Treatment of pulmonary sarcoidosis is recommended in case of significant symptoms, impaired or deteriorating lung function. Evidence-based treatment recommendations are limited and largely based on expert opin...

    Authors: Vivienne Kahlmann, Montse Janssen Bonás, Catharina C. Moor, Coline H. M. van Moorsel, Mirjam Kool, Raisa Kraaijvanger, Jan C. Grutters, Mayka Overgaauw, Marcel Veltkamp and Marlies S. Wijsenbeek

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:271

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Severe asthma is a chronic disease contributing to disproportionate disease morbidity and mortality. From the year of 2007, many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have documented a large number of asthma-...

    Authors: Zhouzhou Dong, Yunlong Ma, Hua Zhou, Linhui Shi, Gongjie Ye, Lei Yang, Panpan Liu and Li Zhou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:270

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to almost 100 countries, infected over 31 M patients and resulted in 961 K deaths worldwi...

    Authors: Esmaeil Mortaz, Majid Malkmohammad, Hamidreza Jamaati, Parisa Adimi Naghan, Seyed MohamadReza Hashemian, Payam Tabarsi, Maohammad Varahram, Hamidreza Zaheri, Efsun Gonca Uğur Chousein, Gert Folkerts and Ian M. Adcock

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:269

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Reports on the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) are scarce. There have been no studies investigating the optimal specimen typ...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Bo Wu, Donglin Yang, Chao Yang, Zhixian Jin, Jie Cao and Jing Feng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:268

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation offers potential benefits to people with asthma. It is however unknown if rehabilitation favourably affects patients’ health care needs. We therefore examined if rehabilitation reduced...

    Authors: Julia Salandi, Andrea Icks, Jalal Gholami, Stefan Hummel, Konrad Schultz, Christian Apfelbacher, Aziz Sheikh and Adrian Loerbroks

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:267

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in regulating chemo-resistance of NSCLC, however, the role of lncRNA SNHG14 in the DDP-resistance of NSCLC remains unexplored.

    Authors: Li Xu, Yan Xu, Min Yang, Jia Li, Fang Xu and Bo-Lin Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:266

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare lung disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lung lobe and pleura. There have been no reports of IPPFE complicating pregnancy. ...

    Authors: Aiko Sekine, Kohei Seo, Satoshi Matsukura, Masaaki Sato, Aya Shinozaki-Ushiku, Takashi Ogura, Akihiko Kitami, Mitsutaka Kadokura, Satoshi Dohi, Kiyotake Ichizuka and Masaaki Nagatsuka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:264

    Content type: Case report

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  15. The complement system plays a critical role as the pathogenic factor in the models of acute lung injury due to various causes. Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a commonly used complement research tool. The CVF can ...

    Authors: Jing Guo, Min Li, Yi Yang, Lin Zhang, Li-wei Zhang and Qian-yun Sun

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:263

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is one of a growing number of chronic health problems that is difficult to cure in aging societies. While it is important to be vigilant about associated comorbi...

    Authors: Shunsuke Uno, Takanori Asakura, Kozo Morimoto, Kimio Yoshimura, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Yoshihiko Hoshino and Naoki Hasegawa

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:262

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a reaction of the pulmonary vasculature upon hypoxia, diverting blood flow into ventilated areas to preserve oxygenation. It is impaired in endotoxemia or ARDS. Volt...

    Authors: Maurizio Turzo, Karin Metzger, Felix Lasitschka, Markus A. Weigand and Cornelius J. Busch

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:260

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment on l...

    Authors: Ane Uranga MD, Amaia Artaraz MD, Amaia Bilbao MD, Jose María Quintana MD, Ignacio Arriaga MD, Maider Intxausti MD, Jose Luis Lobo MD, Julia Amaranta García MD, Jesus Camino MD and Pedro Pablo España MD

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:261

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an extremely rare disease with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), oculocutaneous albinism, induced platelet dysfunction, and granulomatous colitis. Although patients with HPS-associate...

    Authors: Yukari Kato, Motoyasu Kato, Hiroaki Ihara, Eri Hayakawa, Kohei Shibayama, Keita Miura, Tomoko Yamada, Yoichiro Mitsuishi, Takehito Shukuya, Jun Ito, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tadashi Sato, Kenji Suzuki and Kazuhisa Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:259

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Global standards require that spirometry should be performed by trained and experienced personnel, who would be able to assess the correct performance of tests by patients and assure good quality of the result...

    Authors: Adaeze Ayuk, Chizalu Ndukwu, Samuel Uwaezuoke and Eno Ekop

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:258

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) is a group of respiratory conditions affecting the lung interstitium often associated with progressive respiratory failure. There is increasing recognition of the need for impro...

    Authors: Irene Moore, Jeremy Wrobel, Jessica Rhodes, Qi Lin, Susanne Webster, Helen Jo, Lauren Troy, Christopher Grainge, Ian Glaspole and Tamera J. Corte

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:257

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody testing was approved by the Japanese government in 2018. As such, there was no longitudinal data regarding the HLA-sensitization of lung transplant (LTX) patients in...

    Authors: Sakiko Kumata, Takashi Hirama, Yui Watanabe, Hisashi Oishi, Hiromichi Niikawa, Miki Akiba, Jussi Tikkanen and Yoshinori Okada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:256

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Disease progression in COPD patient is associated to lung function decline, leading to a higher risk of hypoxaemia and associated comorbidities, notably cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Adiponectin (Ad) is an ad...

    Authors: Mélany Pierard, Alexandra Tassin, Antoine Legrand and Alexandre Legrand

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:255

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The Spanish chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guideline phenotypes patients according to the exacerbation frequency and COPD subtypes. In this study, we compared the patients’ health-related quality...

    Authors: Chee-Shee Chai, Sumastika Bt Mos, Diana-Leh-Ching Ng, Greta-Miranda-Kim-Choo Goh, Anselm-Ting Su, Muhammad Amin B. Ibrahim, Aisya Natasya Bt Musa, Seng-Beng Tan, Yong-Kek Pang and Chong-Kin Liam

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:254

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Comorbidities and adherence to inhaled therapy appears to have a major impact on treatment goals, health status and disease control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aim of the study was to asse...

    Authors: Despo Ierodiakonou, Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla, Maria Kampouraki, Ioannis Poulorinakis, Polyvios Papadokostakis, Ioannis Gialamas, Polyxeni Athanasiou, Vasiliki Bempi, Irene Lampraki and Ioanna Tsiligianni

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:253

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) is difficult to distinguish from cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) considering various clinical situations. SOP caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rare; indeed, it h...

    Authors: Eun Jin Kim and Kyung Chan Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:252

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Endobronchial lipoma is an extremely rare benign tumor, which is generally located in the first three subdivisions of the tracheobronchial tree. According to the existing literature, all endobronchial lipomas ...

    Authors: Shunjin Zhao, Yuexiang Shui and Zhong Dai

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:251

    Content type: Case report

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  28. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D. Alipoor, Masoud Movassaghi, Mohammad Varahram, Jahangir Ghorbani, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen and Ian M. Adcock

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:250

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2017 17:68

  29. Evidence of mediastinal Lymph Node Enlargement (LNE) on CT scan is a common finding in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We sought to investigate whether the involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes is associ...

    Authors: Giacomo Sgalla, Anna Rita Larici, Nicoletta Golfi, Mariarosaria Calvello, Alessandra Farchione, Annemilia Del Ciello, Francesco Varone, Bruno Iovene, Riccardo Manfredi and Luca Richeldi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  30. One forth whole-world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but 90% of them are asymptotic latent infection without any symptoms but positive result in IFN-γ release assay. There is lack o...

    Authors: Zhenhong Wei, Yuanting Li, Chaojun Wei, Yonghong Li, Hui Xu, Yu Wu, Yanjuan Jia, Rui Guo, Jing Jia, Xiaoming Qi, Zhenhao Li and Xiaoling Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Myospherulosis develops as the result of a reaction between exogenous lipids and red blood cells (RBC) of the patient, being the latter injured when perceived as a foreign body by the immune system, triggering...

    Authors: Liliana Fernández-Trujillo, Santiago Sanchez, Saveria Sangiovanni-Gonzalez, Eliana I. Morales, Mauricio Velásquez and Luz F. Sua

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:246

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Chest CT scan and chest x-rays show characteristic radiographic findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The study a...

    Authors: Liqa A. Rousan, Eyhab Elobeid, Musaab Karrar and Yousef Khader

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:245

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Factors affecting the safety of bronchoscopy in patients with malignant hematologic disorders have not been well described. We evaluated the safety of bronchoscopy and describe factors affecting its complication ...

    Authors: Hironori Uruga, Toshitaka Sato, Aya Nishida, Naoyuki Uchida, Masanori Tsuji, Shuhei Moriguchi, Yui Takahashi, Kazumasa Ogawa, Kyoko Murase, Shigeo Hanada, Hisashi Takaya, Atsushi Miyamoto, Nasa Morokawa, Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Rumiko Tsuchihashi…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:243

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Lung cancer is a frequent comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the local risk of developing lung cancer related to regional emphysema distribution and clinical outcome has not ...

    Authors: Jung Won Heo, Hye Seon Kang, Chan Kwon Park, Sung Kyoung Kim, Ju Sang Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Sang Haak Lee and Chang Dong Yeo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:242

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often leads to hospitalisation and invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious complication. Aspergillus sensitisation may worsen symptoms in COPD.

    Authors: Emily E. Hammond, Charles S. McDonald, Jørgen Vestbo and David W. Denning

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:241

    Content type: Research article

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  36. As part of the multinational I-O Optimise research initiative, this retrospective cohort study of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) evaluated real-world treatment patterns and survival ...

    Authors: Marta Soares, Luís Antunes, Patrícia Redondo, Marina Borges, Ruben Hermans, Dony Patel, Fiona Grimson, Robin Munro, Carlos Chaib, Laure Lacoin, Melinda Daumont, John R. Penrod, John C. O’Donnell, Maria José Bento and Francisco Rocha Gonçalves

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:240

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Increasing cases of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompetent patients with severe influenza have been reported. Howevere, the risk factors for occurence and death are largely unknown.

    Authors: Liang Chen, Xiudi Han, Yanli Li, Chunxiao Zhang and Xiqian Xing

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:239

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Patients treated for non-squamous (non-Sq) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often require repeat biopsies to determine the optimal subsequent treatment. However, the differences between rebiopsy and initial ...

    Authors: Akiko Tateishi, Yuji Matsumoto, Midori Tanaka, Toshiyuki Nakai, Shinji Sasada, Masahiro Aoshima and Takaaki Tsuchida

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:238

    Content type: Research article

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  39. This study aimed to evaluate whether the Homocysteine (Hcy) level was elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and its correlation with the occurrence and acute progression of COPD.

    Authors: Bing Wei, Tian Tian, Yugeng Liu and Chunsheng Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:237

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an important cause of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in immunocompromised patients, yet no actual clinical tool suitably identifies patients at risk. Recently, a multivariable pre...

    Authors: Ryoung-Eun Ko, Jongmin Lee, Soo Jin Na, Na Ri Jeong, Seon Woo Kim and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:236

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease that occurs equally in men and women. However, a difference in morbidity and mortality rates between the sexes has been long documente...

    Authors: G. Y. Lam, J. Goodwin, P. Wilcox and B. S. Quon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:234

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRIs) is very common both in terms of community-acquired infection and hospital-acquired infection. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are the most important spec...

    Authors: Zheng Peng, Jin’an Zhou and Lei Tian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:233

    Content type: Research article

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  43. A study of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden by chest roentgenography (CXR) with reference to interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is still lacking in rheumatic patients of an intermediate tuberculo...

    Authors: Ping-Huai Wang, Chou-Han Lin, Ting-Hui Chang and Chien-Sheng Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a useful examination to detect the source of the bleeding in patients with hemoptysis. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the role and cl...

    Authors: Huu Y Le, Van Nam Le, Ngoc Hung Pham, Anh Tuan Phung, Thanh Tung Nguyen and Quyet Do

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:231

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Oxygen is an essential therapy for hypoxemia but is scarce in low-income settings. Oxygen conserving devices optimize delivery, but to date have been designed for adults in high-income settings. Here we presen...

    Authors: Jerry Mulondo, Stella Maleni, Hellen Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Ezekiel Mupere, Alfred Onubia Andama, Chin Hei Ng, Stephen Burkot, Ella M. E. Forgie, Qaasim Mian, Christine M. Bachman, Gerard Rummery, Daniel Lieberman, David Bell, Michael T. Hawkes and Akos Somoskovi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:230

    Content type: Research article

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